【beplay体育官网】中国历史文化英文介绍,用英语介绍中国历史

本文摘要:用英语解读中国历史History of ChinaThe recorded history of China began in the 15th century BC when the Shang Dynasty started to use markings that evolved into the present Chinese characters. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[1] Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River (Huang He) valley. 221 BC is commonly accepted to be the year in which China became unified under a large kingdom or empire. In that year, Qin Shi Huang first united China. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to control increasingly larger territory that reached maximum under the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty and Manchurian Qing Dynasty.The conventional view of Chinese history is that of a country alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and assimilation, merged to create the Chinese culture.Xia DynastyThe historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC) and the account in Chinese the Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated. The Shang and Zhou people had existed within the Xia Dynasty since the beginning of Xia. They were Xia’s loyal vassals. The exact time of the Xia Dynasty is hard to define, but mainly focused on two options, either 431 years or 471 years.Shang Dynasty Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang found in the Yellow River Valley.The earliest discovered written record of China's past dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BC, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones. Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, c 1600–1046 BC is divided into two sets. The first set, from the earlier Shang period (c 1600–1300 BC) comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. Anyang in modern day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the nine capitals of the Shang (c 1300–1046 BC). The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang; it was the longest dynasty in Chinese history.Zhou Dynasty Bronze ritual vessel, Western Zhou DynastyMain article: Zhou DynastyBy the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The Zhou were a people who lived west of Shang, and the Zhou leader had been appointed "Western Protector" by the Shang. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty. The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.Spring and Autumn Period Chinese pu vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period.In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋战国时期), named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves. The Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子百家,诸子百家) of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism (儒家思想), Taoism (道教), Legalism (法家学派) and Mohism (墨子) were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.Warring States PeriodMain article: Warring States PeriodAfter further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the ye
ars in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period. Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡县,郡县). This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省县,省县). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng (嬴政), the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇帝).Qin Dynasty The Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang.Main article: Qin DynastyHistorians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the Qin (秦) Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (西安,西安) (close to modern Xi'an). The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy of Legalism, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peace time. The Qin presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han Synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.Han Dynasty(206 BC-220 AD) A Han Dynasty incense burner with a sliding shutter.The Han Dynasty emerged in 206 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences. Emperor Wu (Han Wudi 汉武帝刘彻,汉武帝刘彻) consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (sometimes identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road.Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang (王莽) founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty (新的朝) and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms. These programs, however, were never supported by the land-holding families, for they favored the peasants. The instability brought about chaos and uprisings.Emperor Guangwu (光武帝) reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of land-holding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an. This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty. Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion (黄巾之乱,黄巾之乱) broke out in 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms. This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.Jin Dynasty (265–420)Though the three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 278 by the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu, 五胡) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang. In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han. Under Liu Yuan the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao. His successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors. Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans. Most of these nomadic peoples had to some extent been "Sinicized" long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Ch'iang and the Xiong-nu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.Southern and Northern Dynasties A limestone statue of the Bodhisattva, from the Northern Qi Dynasty, 570 AD, made in what is now modern Henan province.Main article: Southern and Northern DynastiesSignaled by the collapse of East Jin (晋代,晋代) Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Han people managed to
survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xian Bei (鲜卑), and their civilization continued to thrive.In Southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.In 589, Sui (隋) annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen (陈,陈), through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.Sui DynastyThe Sui Dynasty (隋朝), which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest. The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang. Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly. As it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the arrogance of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.Tang Dynasty A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-colored glaze porcelain horse (ca. 700 AD).Main article: Tang DynastyOn June 18, 618, Gaozu (唐高祖李渊) took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty (唐代) was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology. Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the first century, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people.Chang'an (北京长安,北京长安) (modern Xi'an西安市), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time. The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive trade with distant foreign countries and many foreign merchants settled in China.Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsMain article: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms PeriodThe period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (五代十国), lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multi-state system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China. During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms (十国).Song Dynasty and Liao, Jin, Western Xia Homeward Oxherds in Wind and Rain, by Li Di, 12th centuryMain articles: Song Dynasty, Liao Dynasty, Western Xia, and Jin Dynasty, 1115-1234In 960, the Song Dynasty (960-1279) (宋代) gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (汴京/汴京,汴京), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty (契丹族契丹,契丹族契丹) ruled over Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. In 1115 the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (女真族金国,女真族金国) emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years. Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty (北魏) from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.Yuan Dynasty Yang Guifei Mounting a Horse, by Qian Xuan (1235-1305 AD).Jurchen tribes' Jin Dynasty, whose names are also rendered "Jin" in pinyin, was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war where firearms played an important role. During the era after the war, later called the Pax Mongolica, adventurous Westerners such as Marco Polo travelled all the way to China and brought the first reports of its wonders to Europe. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the ChineseMing Dynasty Court Ladies of the Former Shu, by Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1523).Throughout a short-lived Yuan Dynasty, there was strong sentiment, among the populace, against the rule of the foreigners, which finally led to peasant revolts. The Mongolians were pushed back to the steppes and replaced by the Ming Dynasty (明代) in 1368.Qing DynastyMain article: Qing DynastyThe Qing Dynasty (清代, 1644–1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus (回族,回族). The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen and invaded from the north in the late seventeenth century. An estimated 25 million people died during the Manchu conquest of Ming Dynasty (1616-1644).参考文献:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_China用英文解读一下中国历史文化艺术。

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用英语解读中国历史History of ChinaThe recorded history of China began in the 15th century BC when the Shang Dynasty started to use markings that evolved into the present Chinese characters. Turtle shells with markings reminiscent of ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[1] Chinese civilization originated with city-states in the Yellow River (Huang He) valley. 221 BC is commonly accepted to be the year in which China became unified under a large kingdom or empire. In that year, Qin Shi Huang first united China. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to control increasingly larger territory that reached maximum under the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty and Manchurian Qing Dynasty.The conventional view of Chinese history is that of a country alternating between periods of political unity and disunity and occasionally becoming dominated by foreign peoples, most of whom were assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and assimilation, merged to create the Chinese culture.Xia DynastyThe historian Sima Qian (145 BC-90 BC) and the account in Chinese the Bamboo Annals date the founding of the Xia Dynasty to 4,200 years ago, but this date has not been corroborated. The Shang and Zhou people had existed within the Xia Dynasty since the beginning of Xia. They were Xia’s loyal vassals. The exact time of the Xia Dynasty is hard to define, but mainly focused on two options, either 431 years or 471 years.Shang Dynasty Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang found in the Yellow River Valley.The earliest discovered written record of China's past dates from the Shang Dynasty in perhaps the 13th century BC, and takes the form of inscriptions of divination records on the bones or shells of animals—the so-called oracle bones. Archaeological findings providing evidence for the existence of the Shang Dynasty, c 1600–1046 BC is divided into two sets. The first set, from the earlier Shang period (c 1600–1300 BC) comes from sources at Erligang, Zhengzhou and Shangcheng. The second set, from the later Shang or Yin (殷) period, consists of a large body of oracle bone writings. Anyang in modern day Henan has been confirmed as the last of the nine capitals of the Shang (c 1300–1046 BC). The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang; it was the longest dynasty in Chinese history.Zhou Dynasty Bronze ritual vessel, Western Zhou DynastyMain article: Zhou DynastyBy the end of the 2nd millennium BC, the Zhou Dynasty began to emerge in the Yellow River valley, overrunning the Shang. The Zhou appeared to have begun their rule under a semi-feudal system. The Zhou were a people who lived west of Shang, and the Zhou leader had been appointed "Western Protector" by the Shang. The ruler of the Zhou, King Wu, with the assistance of his brother, the Duke of Zhou, as regent managed to defeat the Shang at the Battle of Muye. The king of Zhou at this time invoked the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to legitimize his rule, a concept that would be influential for almost every successive dynasty. The Zhou initially moved their capital west to an area near modern Xi'an, near the Yellow River, but they would preside over a series of expansions into the Yangtze River valley. This would be the first of many population migrations from north to south in Chinese history.Spring and Autumn Period Chinese pu vessel with interlaced dragon design, Spring and Autumn Period.In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋战国时期), named after the influential Spring and Autumn Annals. In this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power and vie for hegemony. The situation was aggravated by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin, forcing the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang. This marks the second large phase of the Zhou dynasty: the Eastern Zhou. In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local strongmen held most of the political power and continued their subservience to the Zhou kings in name only. Local leaders for instance started using royal titles for themselves. The Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子百家,诸子百家) of Chinese philosophy blossomed during this period, and such influential intellectual movements as Confucianism (儒家思想), Taoism (道教), Legalism (法家学派) and Mohism (墨子) were founded, partly in response to the changing political world. The Spring and Autumn Period is marked by a falling apart of the central Zhou power. China now consists of hundreds of states, some only as large as a village with a fort.Warring States PeriodMain article: Warring States PeriodAfter further political consolidation, seven prominent states remained by the end of 5th century BC, and the ye
ars in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period. Though there remained a nominal Zhou king until 256 BC, he was largely a figurehead and held little real power. As neighboring territories of these warring states, including areas of modern Sichuan and Liaoning, were annexed, they were governed under the new local administrative system of commandery and prefecture (郡县,郡县). This system had been in use since the Spring and Autumn Period and parts can still be seen in the modern system of Sheng & Xian (province and county, 省县,省县). The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng (嬴政), the king of Qin. His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in the modern regions of Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi in 214 BC enabled him to proclaim himself the First Emperor (Qin Shi Huangdi, 秦始皇帝).Qin Dynasty The Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang.Main article: Qin DynastyHistorians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China. Though the unified reign of the Qin (秦) Emperor lasted only 12 years, he managed to subdue great parts of what constitutes the core of the Han Chinese homeland and to unite them under a tightly centralized Legalist government seated at Xianyang (西安,西安) (close to modern Xi'an). The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor. This philosophy of Legalism, while effective for expanding the empire in a military fashion, proved unworkable for governing it in peace time. The Qin presided over the brutal silencing of political opposition, including the event known as the burning and burying of scholars. This would be the impetus behind the later Han Synthesis incorporating the more moderate schools of political governance.Han Dynasty(206 BC-220 AD) A Han Dynasty incense burner with a sliding shutter.The Han Dynasty emerged in 206 BC. It was the first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism, which became the ideological underpinning of all regimes until the end of imperial China. Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences. Emperor Wu (Han Wudi 汉武帝刘彻,汉武帝刘彻) consolidated and extended the Chinese empire by pushing back the Xiongnu (sometimes identified with the Huns) into the steppes of modern Inner Mongolia, wresting from them the modern areas of Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai. This enabled the first opening of trading connections between China and the West, the Silk Road.Nevertheless, land acquisitions by elite families gradually drained the tax base. In AD 9, the usurper Wang Mang (王莽) founded the short-lived Xin ("New") Dynasty (新的朝) and started an extensive program of land and other economic reforms. These programs, however, were never supported by the land-holding families, for they favored the peasants. The instability brought about chaos and uprisings.Emperor Guangwu (光武帝) reinstated the Han Dynasty with the support of land-holding and merchant families at Luoyang, east of Xi'an. This new era would be termed the Eastern Han Dynasty. Han power declined again amidst land acquisitions, invasions, and feuding between consort clans and eunuchs. The Yellow Turban Rebellion (黄巾之乱,黄巾之乱) broke out in 184, ushering in an era of warlords. In the ensuing turmoil, three states tried to gain predominance in the Period of the Three Kingdoms. This time period has been greatly romanticized in works such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms.Jin Dynasty (265–420)Though the three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 278 by the Jin Dynasty, the contemporary non-Han Chinese (Wu Hu, 五胡) ethnic groups controlled much of the country in the early 4th century and provoked large-scale Han Chinese migrations to south of the Chang Jiang. In 303 the Di people rebelled and later captured Chengdu, establishing the state of Cheng Han. Under Liu Yuan the Xiongnu rebelled near today's Linfen County and established the state of Han Zhao. His successor Liu Cong captured and executed the last two Western Jin emperors. Sixteen kingdoms were a plethora of short-lived non-Chinese dynasties that came to rule the whole or parts of northern China in the 4th and 5th centuries. Many ethnic groups were involved, including ancestors of the Turks, Mongolians, and Tibetans. Most of these nomadic peoples had to some extent been "Sinicized" long before their ascent to power. In fact, some of them, notably the Ch'iang and the Xiong-nu, had already been allowed to live in the frontier regions within the Great Wall since late Han times.Southern and Northern Dynasties A limestone statue of the Bodhisattva, from the Northern Qi Dynasty, 570 AD, made in what is now modern Henan province.Main article: Southern and Northern DynastiesSignaled by the collapse of East Jin (晋代,晋代) Dynasty in 420, China entered the era of the Southern and Northern Dynasties. The Han people managed to
survive the military attacks from the nomadic tribes of the north, such as the Xian Bei (鲜卑), and their civilization continued to thrive.In Southern China, fierce debates about whether Buddhism should be allowed to exist were held frequently by the royal court and nobles. Finally, near the end of the Southern and Northern Dynasties era, both Buddhist and Taoist followers compromised and became more tolerant of each other.In 589, Sui (隋) annexed the last Southern Dynasty, Chen (陈,陈), through military force, and put an end to the era of Southern and Northern Dynasties.Sui DynastyThe Sui Dynasty (隋朝), which managed to reunite the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation, played a role more important than its length of existence would suggest. The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors, the Tang. Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed. Also similar to the Qin, traditional history has judged the Sui somewhat unfairly. As it has stressed the harshness of the Sui regime and the arrogance of its second emperor, giving little credit for the Dynasty's many positive achievements.Tang Dynasty A Chinese Tang Dynasty tri-colored glaze porcelain horse (ca. 700 AD).Main article: Tang DynastyOn June 18, 618, Gaozu (唐高祖李渊) took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty (唐代) was established, opening a new age of prosperity and innovations in arts and technology. Buddhism, which had gradually been established in China from the first century, became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people.Chang'an (北京长安,北京长安) (modern Xi'an西安市), the national capital, is thought to have been the world's largest city at the time. The Tang and the Han are often referred to as the most prosperous periods of Chinese history.The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive trade with distant foreign countries and many foreign merchants settled in China.Five Dynasties and Ten KingdomsMain article: Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms PeriodThe period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period (五代十国), lasted little more than half a century, from 907 to 960. During this brief era, when China was in all respects a multi-state system, five regimes succeeded one another rapidly in control of the old Imperial heartland in northern China. During this same time, 10 more stable regimes occupied sections of southern and western China, so the period is also referred to as that of the Ten Kingdoms (十国).Song Dynasty and Liao, Jin, Western Xia Homeward Oxherds in Wind and Rain, by Li Di, 12th centuryMain articles: Song Dynasty, Liao Dynasty, Western Xia, and Jin Dynasty, 1115-1234In 960, the Song Dynasty (960-1279) (宋代) gained power over most of China and established its capital in Kaifeng (汴京/汴京,汴京), starting a period of economic prosperity, while the Khitan Liao Dynasty (契丹族契丹,契丹族契丹) ruled over Manchuria and eastern Mongolia. In 1115 the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (女真族金国,女真族金国) emerged to prominence, annihilating the Liao Dynasty in 10 years. Meanwhile, in what are now the northwestern Chinese provinces of Gansu, Shaanxi, and Ningxia, there emerged a Western Xia Dynasty (北魏) from 1032 up to 1227, established by Tangut tribes.Yuan Dynasty Yang Guifei Mounting a Horse, by Qian Xuan (1235-1305 AD).Jurchen tribes' Jin Dynasty, whose names are also rendered "Jin" in pinyin, was defeated by the Mongols, who then proceeded to defeat the Southern Song in a long and bloody war, the first war where firearms played an important role. During the era after the war, later called the Pax Mongolica, adventurous Westerners such as Marco Polo travelled all the way to China and brought the first reports of its wonders to Europe. In the Yuan Dynasty, the Mongols were divided between those who wanted to remain based in the steppes and those who wished to adopt the customs of the ChineseMing Dynasty Court Ladies of the Former Shu, by Ming painter Tang Yin (1470-1523).Throughout a short-lived Yuan Dynasty, there was strong sentiment, among the populace, against the rule of the foreigners, which finally led to peasant revolts. The Mongolians were pushed back to the steppes and replaced by the Ming Dynasty (明代) in 1368.Qing DynastyMain article: Qing DynastyThe Qing Dynasty (清代, 1644–1911) was founded after the defeat of the Ming, the last Han Chinese dynasty, by the Manchus (回族,回族). The Manchus were formerly known as the Jurchen and invaded from the north in the late seventeenth century. An estimated 25 million people died during the Manchu conquest of Ming Dynasty (1616-1644).参考文献:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_China用英文解读一下中国历史文化艺术。用英文!赶快!Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but
the Yellow River is said to be the Cradle of Chinese Civilization. The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (c. 1700 – c. 1046 BC).[1] Oracle bones with ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been radiocarbon dated to as early as 1500 BC.[2] The origins of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1045-256 BC).The Zhou Dynasty began to bow to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC. The ability of the Zhou to control its regional lords lessened, and the kingdom eventually broke apart into smaller states, beginning in the Spring and Autumn Period and reaching full expression in the Warring States period. In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to directly control vast territories.The conventional view of Chinese history is that of alternating periods of political unity and disunity, with China occasionally being dominated by Inner Asian peoples, most of whom were in turn assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and cultural assimilation, are part of the modern culture of China.用英文解读中国历史名人In 200, Yuan Shao amassed more than 100,000 troops and marched southwards on Xuchang in the name of rescuing the emperor. Cao Cao gathered 20,000 men in Guandu, a strategic point on the shore of the Yellow River. The two armies come to a standstill as neither side was able to make much progress. Cao Cao's lack of men did not allow him to make significant attacks, and the pride of Yuan Shao forced him to target Cao Cao's force head-on. Despite his overwhelming advantage in terms of manpower Yuan Shao was unable to make full use of his resources because of his indecisive leadership and Cao Cao's location.Besides the middle battleground of Guandu, two lines of battle were present. The eastern line with Yuan Tan of Yuan Shao's army versus Zang Ba of Cao Cao's army was a one-sided battle in favor of Cao Cao, as Yuan Tan's own questionable leadership was no match for Xang Ba's local knowledge of the landscape and hit-and-run tactics. To the western side, Yuan Shao's cousin, Gao Gan, performed much better against Cao Cao's army and forced several reinforcements from Cao Cao's main camp to maintain the western battle. Liu Bei, who was at the time a guest in Yuan Shao's army, also suggested to induce uprising in the back of Cao Cao's lands as there were many connections to the Yuan family and their subordinates. The tactic was successful at first, but quickly countered by Man Chong's diplomatic skill. Man Chong had been placed as an official there for this specific reason, as Cao Cao had foreseen the situation prior to the battle.Finally, with the help of a defector from Yuan Shao's army, Xu You, who informed Cao Cao of the location of Yuan Shao's army supply, Cao Cao broke the standstill and sent a special task force to burn all the supplies of Yuan Shao's army and won a decisive and seemingly impossible victory. Yuan Shao fell ill and died shortly after returning from the defeat, leaving his legacy to two of his sons – the eldest son, Yuan Tan and the youngest son, Yuan Shang. As he had designated the youngest son, Yuan Shang, as his successor, rather than the eldest as tradition dictated, the two brothers consistently feuded against each other, as they fought Cao Cao. Because of their internal divisions, Cao Cao was easily able to defeat them by using their differences to his advantage. Henceforth Cao Cao assumed effective rule over all of northern China. He sent armies further out and extended his control past the Great Wall into northern Korea, and southward to the Han River.However, Cao Cao's attempt to extend his domination south of the Yangtze River was unsuccessful. He received an initial great success when Liu Biao, ruler of Jing Zhou, died, and his successor, Liu Zong surrendered to Cao Cao without resistance. Delighted by this turn-out (Cao Cao, a devoted follower of Sun Tzu's Art of War, also considered "defeating your enemy without battle" to be the highest form of achievement of war) he pressed on and hoped the same would happen despite the objections by his military advisors. His forces were then defeated by the first coalition of his archrivals Liu Bei and Sun Quan (who later founded the kingdoms of Shu and Wu respectively) at the Red Cliffs in 208.参考文献:wiki百科中国是一个具备比较丰富文化艺术和有悠久的历史历史时间的古蜀国用英语怎么说China is an ancient country with rich culture and long history.关键语汇分析:1、ancient字读音:英['eɪnʃənt] 美['eɪnʃənt]  释意:adj.历史悠久的;古时候的n.古代人词句使用方法:ancient在句中可用以定语,有时也可用以表语或宾语填补语。ancient喻指太古时代,一般在酉洋指Western Roman Empire灭亡之前,即476年前。

2、culture字读音:英['kʌltʃ
ə(r)] 美['kʌltʃər]  释意:n.种植;文化艺术;修养vt.培养,种植词句使用方法:culture常见作不可数名词,当答复某一特殊方式的文化艺术或某类种类的文化艺术时,可作为复数形式。扩展材料culture的同同义词:civilization英[ˌsɪvəlaɪ'zeɪʃn] 美[ˌsɪvələ'zeɪʃn]  n.文明行为;文治;修养Chinese civilization is one of the oldest in the world.中国传统文化是世界最历史悠久的文化艺术之一。哪里有相关中国古代历史和中华传统文化的英语小短文举荐一本书吧用英文解读中国水利水电工程出版社出版图书发行某种意义是中华传统文化 也有自然地理 历史时间 历史人文 名胜古迹 人文风情 这些 用英语说道我国你之后基础无须去找其他书了英语翻译:我国具有历史时间悠久的历史和幸福的文化艺术China has a long history and splendid culture.剖析:1、这是一个主谓宾结构的简单句,依据语句含意用一般现在时,主语是第三人称奇数,故谓语动词用has。

2、句子成分剖析:主语:China宾语:has宾语:a long history and splendid culture.3、简单句的基础种类:1)、主语 宾语(不及物动词) 其他。如:He is reading . 他已经一天到晚。2)、主语 宾语(及物动词) 宾语 其他。

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如:He likes English . 他讨厌英语。3)、主语 宾语(及物动词) 宾语 宾语填补语 其他。如:My mother often asks me to go to school on time .我的妈妈经常要我按期念书。4)、主语 宾语(及物动词) 间接宾语 必需宾语 其他。

如:Mr.Li teaches us English . 赵老师教师我们英语。5)、主语 系动词 表语 其他。如:I am very happy .我很高兴。chinese tea 的英文论文,解读我国的茶道文化!缓!茶来源于我国,中国人种茶喝茶了解4000很多年的历史时间了。

讲到到茶种类,类型感慨多啊,尤其是西湖龙井茶享有盛誉全球。用餐用的杯子,茶具一般是用瓷器保证的。用餐能够在许多 地区喝,像餐饮店、家中、下班了睡觉的时候。

但在茶楼喝是最有诗意的。用餐也有许多 好处,像不利身心健康,醒神饮品,绿茶叶还抗癌。茶道文化有悠久的历史,我们要把它传承下来。

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Tea from China, Chinese tea drinking tea has 4000 years of history. When it comes to the types of tea, is really more species, especially longjing tea is famous in the world. Cup of tea, tea POTS are usually made of ceramic. Tea can be drunk in many places, such as restaurants, home, work and rest. But in the teahouse to drink is one of the most artistic conception. Tea has many benefits, like healthy, refreshing refreshing, green tea is also a preventive against cancer. Tea culture has a long history, we have to pass it on.务必给海外盆友卖对中国古代历史文化艺术很感兴趣的书,欲举荐,英语版的,感谢  有关历史时间这一块儿:由美国哈佛大学专家教授节目主持人编撰的《剑桥中国史》(The Cambridge History of Ancient China),也有美籍华裔黄仁宇老先生写成的《中国大历史》 (China—A Macro History),《万历十五年》(1587,A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline), 《十六世纪明代中国之财政与税收》(Taxtation and Governmental Finance in Sixteenth Century Ming China),《剑桥中国史》知名度非常大,但因为也没有看了,不方便保证评价,我只看了《万历十五年》和《十六世纪明代中国之财政与税收》,对比于《明朝那些事儿》,这两本认可是稍学术研究的,但《万历十五年》還是较为比较浅显易懂的。这种书汉化版在目前市面上比较比较好找,但英语版有可能比较何以了。  对于文化艺术层面,我举荐林语堂写成的书,林语堂的书大多数是用以英语写成的,大家现在在目前市面上看到的汉化版是经过别人译成回来的。

例如《吾国与吾民》(My Country and My People),这本书曾在国外引起了巨大的反应,攀上英国畅销书籍排名榜,让那时候的欧洲人了解了我国。这本书的汉化版和英语版在市面上都是有的买,汉化版听到是林语堂要求他同学大哥他译成的,有些人强调译成的很雅,有些人则强调译成的比较古奥,对于英语版的,是外研社图书发行的。

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